A provision for widows and the divorced
Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)
Stage – 1, Verses – 240 to 243 of 286, Section – 31 & 32 of 40 (Part - 2)
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
240. (In the case of) those of you who are about to die and leave behind them wives, they should bequeath unto their wives a provision for the year without turning them out, but if they go out (of their own accord) there is no sin for you in that which they do of themselves within their rights. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.
241. And for divorced women is a provision in kindness. A duty for those who ward off (evil).
242. Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His Revelations so that ye may understand.
240. wallaziina yutawaffawna minkum wa yazaruuna ‘azwaa-janw-wasiy-yatal-li-‘azwaajihim-mataa-‘an ‘ilal-hawli gayra ‘ikh-raaj. Fa-‘in kharajna falaa junaaha ‘alaykum fii maa fa-‘alna fiii ‘anfusihinna mim-ma’-ruuf. WAllaahu ‘Aziizun- Hakiim.
241. wa lil-mutallaqaati mataa-‘um- bil-ma’-ruuf. Haqqan ‘alal-Muttaqiin.
242. Kazaalika yubayyi-nUllaahu lakum ‘Aayaati-Hii la-‘al-lakum ta’-qiluun.
wasiy-yatal-li-‘azwaajihim – (they should bequeath to their wives), these are last verses of this Surah regarding affairs and matters of marriage between husband and wife. God Almighty commanded in it that the husband can produce another facility for his wife, who is being widow due to his forthcoming death, that he should bequeath his heirs for his wife a provision for a year without turning her out and she has right to get concessions.
Whether the woman is divorced or she becomes widow due to fate of God Almighty, whether the portion has been appointed or it was not cleared at the time of marriage, in each condition, Islam teaches good behavior, forgiveness, overlook and goodness. After it, the share of the women in heritance and the term were appointed. Now there is no need to act upon this verse.
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243. Bethink thee not (O Muhammad) of those of old, who went forth from their habitations in their thousands, fearing death, and Allah said unto them: Die; and then He brought them back to life. Lo! Allah is a Lord of kindness to mankind, but most of mankind give not thanks.
243. ‘Alam tara ‘ilallaziina kharajuu min diyaarihim wa hum ‘uluufun hazaralmawt. Fa-qaala lahumUllaahu muu-tuu: summa ‘ah-yaahum. ‘In-nAllaaha la-Zuu-Fazlin ‘alan-naasi wa laakinna ‘aksaran-naasi laa yash-kuruun.
‘Alam tara – (have you not seen? Did you not bethink?), this method of addressing is chosen in Arabic language at those times when attention is drawn towards any known and much big happening. Here it does not mean to see only with eyes, but purpose is to think, meditate and consider with deep thought, and whenever the word ‘ilaa comes with it, then it aims also to teach any lesson from this particular event.
‘allaziina kharajuu – who went forth (from their habitations), it signifies towards the children of Israel, who had left their homes due to fear of death, and the natives of Arab did know very well this important happening.
This verse indicates toward a very ancient event, that the children of Israel, who were in thousands, had left their native country due to fear of death (cause of which was either they considered plague or attack of enemy). Neither they believed in fate, nor stood up against the enemy with weapons. Moreover, they went forth with cowardice to save their own lives only. But their running away in this manner did not become useful for them, and they could not be saved from the claws of death.
After seven days, one of the Prophets of God Almighty (peace be upon him) prayed for them, and then Allah Almighty brought them back to life, so that they forswear for future and may know that the relation of death and life is in the hands of Some Other Life. Allah Almighty blesses the mankind. The people cannot count His favors. They should be very grateful to God Almighty every moment.