Monday, October 31, 2016

Proportion of man’s and woman’s portion - Quran Chptr 4-11a (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–514)-درس قرآن


Quran Chptr 4-11a (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–514)-درس قرآن

Proportion of man’s and woman’s portion

Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4),

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

11a.  Allah commands you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be only women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one (only) then for her is the half.
11a.  Yuusii-kumullaahu  fiii  ‘aw-laadikum  lizzakari  mislu  haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn.  Fa-‘in- kunna  nisaaa-‘an  fawqas-natayni  fala-hunna  sulusaa  maa  tarak.  Wa  ‘in-kaanat  waahidatan-  fala-han-nisf. 

Lesson

Yuusii-kum  (He commands you), this word has been derived from wasi-yat, which means a last will, legacy, commandment and testament left by any deceased person. However, in this verse Allah Almighty is commanding directly about the proportion of the portions for the men and the women.

Distribution of inheritance is most important maxim of our social life. Even success of the society is connected with its accurate distribution. A common principle about the division of the heritage has been determined here that each male will get double while each female will be given single portion, whether the male and the female are one and one, or any of them is more in number.   

haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn – (equal to two women), according to certain Divine Laws, the female has no portion from the inheritance. During the period of ignorance also, the heritage was used to divide only in the marriageable men. Against this violence, the voice arose in the present time that the portion from inheritance should be distributed equally between the male and the female.

Islamic Law is among the both in this matter, which has determined the portion double for the male than the female.

Its first reason is that the woman is responsible only to train the children. She is neither responsible, nor would think about the livelihood. The male has been held responsible to provide the expenditures for his wife, children and other members of his family. Therefore, it is exactly reasonable and according to the just, that he should be given more portions from the heritage.

Another reason may be too that the married woman usually gets dowry from her parents (the portion from her father’s earnings) in addition to her husband’s inheritance, but the man receives his share only from one side.

If there are just two girls then their total portion will be two-third and each of them will get one-third. Then whether the girls are how more than the two, their collective portion from the heritage will remain the same i.e. two-third. Remaining one-third share will be given to other kinsfolk and relatives.

If there is only one girl then she will get half portion of total heritage and remaining half portion will be distributed to other relatives. But if the relatives etc are not present then that remaining half will also be given to the girl.

If there is no daughter but only the son (whether one or more than one), then they will be the heirs of the whole legacy.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore and translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif. https://youtu.be/SEOUfR1fE2c

Friday, October 28, 2016

Suppose the orphans as your own children - Quran Chptr 4-9&10 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–513)-درس قرآن


Quran Chptr 4-9&10 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–513)-درس قرآن

Suppose the orphans as your own children

Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4)


BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

9.  And let those fear (in their behaviour toward orphans) who if they left behind them weak offspring would be afraid for them. So let them mind their duty to Allah, and speak justly.

10.  Lo! Those who devour the wealth of orphans wrongfully, they do but swallow fire into their bellies. And they will be exposed to burning flame.
9.  Wal-yakh-shallaziina  law  tarakuu  min  khalfihim  zurriy-yatan- zi-‘aafan  khaafuu  ‘alay-him  fal-yattaqullaaha  wal-yaquuluu  qawlan- sadiidaa.

10.  ‘Innallaziina  ya’-kuluuna  ‘amwaalal-yataamaa  zulman  ‘innamaa  ya’-kuluuna  fii  butuu-nihim  Naaraa.  Wa  sa-yas-lawna  sa-‘iiraa.

Lesson

Apparently, it seems that this order is for the guardians and the protectors of the orphans but if we observe it minutely then we will find that it is also applicable upon the other people.

As each person out of us fears that anywhere the matter would not be dealt with badness and severely with our children after our death, likewise we should abstain from extortion with the orphan children of others. As you wish that after your death, the people must treat your children with kindness and grace, just like this, you should behave the orphans in a good manner, with mercy and kindness. If you will do so, then you will remain satisfied about your own offspring, and verily, other people will treat your children with softness and elegance like your behavior with others’ orphans.

You should fear from Allah Almighty, talk with the orphans in a pleasant mood and straight forward, so that, they may get encourage, they may be capable of being set to right or cured and may escape from any disaster.

It has been told in the previous verses several times that care is intransitive in connection with spending the wealth of the orphans, because embezzling in their property is a very big sin. Now the punishment regarding embezzlement in the wealth of orphans has been caused to hear that the persons, who devour the wealth of orphans wrongfully, they do but swallow fire into their bellies. That is to say, the end of devouring the property of orphans will be exposing them (who devour) to the burning flame very soon.

There is no utmost limit of friendless and helplessness of the orphan. He/she is indigent and seeks support of others. If he/she does not find any trustworthy and kind protector then for him/her, it is not far to be ruined and dissolute. Therefore, Allah Almighty ordered, “Deal honestly and treat kindly with the orphans. The person, who will devour the wealth of this helpless creature wrongfully, will be punished very severely.”

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore and translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif. https://youtu.be/K_DZP7LyXgo

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Kind behavior during division of heritage - Quran Chptr 4-8 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–512)-درس قرآن


Quran Chptr 4-8 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–512)-درس قرآن

Kind behavior during division of heritage

Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4),

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

8.  And when kinsfolk  and orphans and the needy are present at the division (of the heritage), bestow on them therefrom and speak kindly unto them.
8.  Wa  ‘izaa  hazaral-qismata  ‘ulul-qurbaa   wal-yataamaa  wal-masaakiinu  far-zuquuhum-min-hu  wa  quuluu  lahum  qawlam-ma’-ruufaa.

Lesson

Ulul-qurbaa  (kinsfolk), close relatives are called ‘ulul-qurbaa and kinsmen.

Far-zuquuhum – {bestow on them (something)}, it has been originated from the word rizq, which means a grant.

Qawlam-ma’-ruufaa  (kindly speaking, fair talk), well known and pleasing talk is called qawlam-ma’-ruufaa, that is to say; such correct saying, which has gotten a credential of a public assent.

If other people of the same kin are present at the time of division of the inheritance, either those persons out of them who do not merit the share from the heritage or the orphans and the needy, they should be returned after causing to drink and feed something. Even if anything is bestowed on them from the heritage, then it is also a good behavior. However, if there is no opportunity of causing to feed or give such people something from the property of inheritance, for instance, the orphans are owners of such property and the deceased person has not bequeathed to give those people something, then they should be seen off speaking them kindly. That is to say, it should be told them very softly that this property belongs to the orphans only and the deceased person has not even left by will for them. Therefore, we are helpless and sorry.

In the beginning of this Chapter (Surah), it was commanded, “Treat the entire kindred and close relatives very kindly, and show partiality with the orphans and the poor.” Therefore, something should be given to those people, and if they have no right of any share due to any reason, then at least they should be behaved in a well manner.

Islam has caused to draw attention repeatedly towards uniting the hearts in friendship. There is description about kinsfolk and close relatives along with the orphans and the poor in these verses. However, at other places, it has been emphasized about the rights of the guests, the neighbors and the strangers also.

When any person is unable to give something or his circumstances have compelled him to stop his hand, then in this form, it has been commanded to adopt the reasonableness in conversation and softness in his talking.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore and translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif. https://youtu.be/4nZvKrgvlrQ

Monday, October 24, 2016

Division of the property of a deceased person - Quran Chptr 4-7 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–511)-درس قرآن


Quran Chptr 4-7 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–511)-درس قرآن

Division of the property of a deceased person

Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4),

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

7.  Unto the men (of a family) belongeth a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, and unto the women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much. A legal share.
7.  Lir-rijaali  nasiibum-mimmaa  tarakal-waalidaani  wal-‘aqrabuuna,  wa  linnisaaa-‘i  nasiibum-mimmaa  tarakal-waalidaani  wal-‘aqrabuuna  mimmaa  qalla  minhu  ‘aw  ka-sur.  Nasiibam-mafruuzaa. 

Lesson

The rights and concessions about orphan children were mentioned in the previous verses. Even that Allah Almighty cleared most petty affairs, which belonged to it, viz. The Mahr (the money or its value incumbent on the husband) of orphan girls should be given without fail, their training and bringing them up should be supervised properly. They should be looked after constantly until they reach the marriageable age. Their property should not be misappropriated. Their wealth should not be finished quickly due to the fear of their adolescence. And when the time of returning the property comes because of their becoming matured, it should be done formal in front of the witnesses.

Before the apostleship of the Messenger of Allah Almighty, Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him), it was a tradition that the daughters could not get the share from the inheritance, either they might be little or older, including the sons who might not reach the marriageable age too. Only the elder sons, who were able to fight against their enemies, were considered heirs. It was the main cause that the orphan children were not given any part of share from the inheritance. This verse was revealed about those people. It has been ordered that the sons either they are adult or little, they will get the share from the hereditary property of parents and near kindred as well as the daughters whether they are adult or little, will also get their share. This verse has finished the traditions of the period of ignorance and safeguarded the rights of orphan children; violation of their rights has been stopped. Detail about fixation of the share of right from the property of a deceased person will be discussed in the next section.

The Heritage Law of Islam is incomparable and has an Exemplary position in the world. Only the sons are considered sharer of the wealth of any deceased person in the maximum countries of the world. No share is given to the daughters. At some places, only elder and adult sons out of the children are imagined rightful heirs and successors.

Islam produced a perfect pattern of justice and equity, fixed the lawful and rightful shares of daughters also like the sons and of the women like other heir men too. The non-Muslims are being necessitated also to accept this Law of Islam in this reign of justice and equation.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore and translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif. https://youtu.be/HIePL52AdFY

Saturday, October 22, 2016

Training of the orphans - Quran Chptr 4-6 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–510)-درس قرآن


Quran Chptr 4-6 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–510)-درس قرآن

Training of the orphans

Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4),

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

6.  And test orphans till they reach the marriageable age; then, if ye find them of sound judgment, deliver over unto them their fortune; and devour it not by squandering and in haste lest they should grow up. And whoso (of the guardians) is rich, let him abstain generously (from taking of the property of orphans); and whoso is poor let him take thereof in reason (for his guardianship). Then when ye deliver up their property unto orphans, have (the transaction) witnessed in their presence. Allah sufficeth as a Reckoner.
6.  Wab-talul-yataamaa  hattaaa  ‘izaa  balagun-nikaah.  Fa-‘in  ‘aanastum-minhum  rushdan-fadfa-‘uuu  ‘ilay-him  ‘amwaala-hum.  Wa  laa  ta’-kuluuhaaa  ‘israafanw-wa  bidaaran  ‘any-yakbaruu.  Wa  man-  kaana  ga-niyyan-  fal-yasta’-fif.  Wa  man-kaana  faqiiran-  fal-ya’kul  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Fa-‘izaa  dafa’-tum  ‘ilay-him  ‘amwaalahum  fa-‘ash-hiduu  ‘alayhim.  Wa  kafaa  billaahi  Hasiibaa.

Lesson

It has been ordered in this verse, “Carry on nourishing and educating the orphans, and testing their sense and comprehension at times till they reach the marriageable age; then, if you find them of sound judgment, then deliver over their property and wealth to them. However if you find that they do not have the required intellect even after reaching the marriageable age, then according to the sect of Imam Abu Hanifah, you would have to wait till the age of twenty five years. During this tenure, whenever he/she seems a wise person, then deliver over the wealth and property to them. Otherwise, hand them over their wealth and property after reaching the age of twenty-five years in each condition.

Spending the wealth of orphans more than necessity is prohibited. Do not finish their property in haste due to the intimidation that after reaching the marriageable age, the orphan will get back his/her property. The guardian should not spend the wealth of orphan for his personal use. However, if the guardian is poor then he can take some property propitious to his services in the reason for his guardianship.

Whenever, father of any child expires then it is important to hand over the wealth of orphan with its written detail to a guardian before some Muslims. And when the orphan reaches the marriageable age, then according to that written detail his/her wealth should be gotten returned and how much has been spent out of it, its detail should be explained to the orphan.

Moreover, refund of the property/wealth should be in the presence of the witnesses so that if any dispute arises in future, then the witnesses may help in its settlement. Allah Almighty is Protector and Reckoner of every thing, He does not need any witness or account Himself. It has been determined for the ease of the people only.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore and translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif. https://youtu.be/YdMaZGRwwrc

Behavior of husband with wife - Quran Chptr 4-4&5 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–509)-درس قرآن


Quran Chptr 4-4&5 (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–509)-درس قرآن

Behavior of husband with wife

Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4),

BisMillaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

4.  And give unto the women (whom ye marry) free gift of their marriage portions. But if they of their own accord remit unto you a part thereof, then ye are welcome to absorb it (in your wealth).

5.  And give not unto the foolish (what is in) your (keeping of their) wealth, which Allah hath given you to maintain; and feed and clothe them from it, and speak kindly unto them.
4.  Wa  ‘aatun-nisaaa-‘a  sadu-qaati-hinna  nihlah.  Fa-‘in-  tib-na  lakum  ‘an- shay-‘im-minhu  nafsan-fakuluuhu  haniii-‘am-mariii-‘aa.

5.  Wa  laa  tu’-tussufahaaa-‘a  ‘amwaala-kumullatii  ja-‘alAllaahu  lakum  qiyaaamanw-war-zuquuhum  fiihaa  waksuuhum  wa  quuluu  lahum  qawlam-ma’-ruufaa.

Lesson

Sadu-qaati-hinna  {free gift of women’s marriage portions (who are married recently)}, sadu-qaat is plural of sadaqah which is also used in the meanings of charity, zakaat (alms-giving). Here it has been used for the money or its value incumbent on the husband as a right of the women (whom you marry).

Matrimony and other orders regarding wives have been described in these verses. Allah Almighty commands, Give unto the women (whom you marry) free gift of their marriage portions happily at your own, whether anybody urges you to pay or not. As though, if you do so then there is no objection to marry the orphan girls. Objection is in that case if there is a risk of shortness in paying the money or its value incumbent on the husband or their any right.

If the woman of her own accord remits her husband a part thereof with her own pleasure or returns it whole to him after receiving, then there is no harm, the husband can take it happily and absorb it in his wealth. The wife can remit the entire money incumbent to her husband too.

haniii-‘am-mariii-‘aa – (with pleasure and love), the meal, which seems delicious and a person accepts it with pleasure, that is called haniii-‘an and mariii-‘an is that meal which becomes part of the body and means of health and personal strength after digestion.

It has been directed about the little children; particularly the orphans come first out of them that until they are unintelligent, their wealth should not be handed over to them, which Allah Almighty has provided for the humankind’s arrangements of livelihood. But you should preserve their wealth entirely and save it from misappropriation until those children do not become able to understand the difference between profit and loss, good and bad. However, feed and clothe them from it, and satisfy them by speaking kindly that entire wealth is for them, we are protecting it only as their well-wishers. When you will become sensible, this wealth will be handed over to you.

We should considerate, meditate and obey these orders, which Allah Almighty has given to us about the orphans and women. We should pray for Divine guidance to act upon them. Not only the feeding and the clothing but also speaking kindly and fair talk is included in the goodness.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore and translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif. https://youtu.be/OiDjdgxNzZE