Quran Chptr 4-11a (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–514)-درس قرآن
Proportion of man’s and woman’s portion
Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4),
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
11a. Allah commands you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be only women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one (only) then for her is the half.
11a. Yuusii-kumullaahu fiii ‘aw-laadikum lizzakari mislu haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn. Fa-‘in- kunna nisaaa-‘an fawqas-natayni fala-hunna sulusaa maa tarak. Wa ‘in-kaanat waahidatan- fala-han-nisf.
Yuusii-kum – (He commands you), this word has been derived from wasi-yat, which means a last will, legacy, commandment and testament left by any deceased person. However, in this verse Allah Almighty is commanding directly about the proportion of the portions for the men and the women.
Distribution of inheritance is most important maxim of our social life. Even success of the society is connected with its accurate distribution. A common principle about the division of the heritage has been determined here that each male will get double while each female will be given single portion, whether the male and the female are one and one, or any of them is more in number.
haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn – (equal to two women), according to certain Divine Laws, the female has no portion from the inheritance. During the period of ignorance also, the heritage was used to divide only in the marriageable men. Against this violence, the voice arose in the present time that the portion from inheritance should be distributed equally between the male and the female.
Islamic Law is among the both in this matter, which has determined the portion double for the male than the female.
Its first reason is that the woman is responsible only to train the children. She is neither responsible, nor would think about the livelihood. The male has been held responsible to provide the expenditures for his wife, children and other members of his family. Therefore, it is exactly reasonable and according to the just, that he should be given more portions from the heritage.
Another reason may be too that the married woman usually gets dowry from her parents (the portion from her father’s earnings) in addition to her husband’s inheritance, but the man receives his share only from one side.
If there are just two girls then their total portion will be two-third and each of them will get one-third. Then whether the girls are how more than the two, their collective portion from the heritage will remain the same i.e. two-third. Remaining one-third share will be given to other kinsfolk and relatives.
If there is only one girl then she will get half portion of total heritage and remaining half portion will be distributed to other relatives. But if the relatives etc are not present then that remaining half will also be given to the girl.
If there is no daughter but only the son (whether one or more than one), then they will be the heirs of the whole legacy.