Monday, February 29, 2016

A provision for widows and the divorced

A provision for widows and the divorced

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)
Stage – 1, Verses – 240 to 243 of 286, Section – 31 & 32 of 40 (Part - 2)

BisMIllaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

240.  (In the case of) those of you who are about to die and leave behind them wives, they should bequeath unto their wives a provision for the year without turning them out, but if they go out (of their own accord) there is no sin for you in that which they do of themselves within their rights. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

241.  And for divorced women is a provision in kindness. A duty for those who ward off (evil).

242.  Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His Revelations so that ye may understand.   
240.  wallaziina  yutawaffawna  minkum  wa  yazaruuna  ‘azwaa-janw-wasiy-yatal-li-‘azwaajihim-mataa-‘an  ‘ilal-hawli  gayra  ‘ikh-raaj.  Fa-‘in kharajna  falaa junaaha  ‘alaykum  fii  maa fa-‘alna  fiii  ‘anfusihinna  mim-ma’-ruuf.  WAllaahu  ‘Aziizun- Hakiim.

241.  wa  lil-mutallaqaati  mataa-‘um- bil-ma’-ruuf.  Haqqan  ‘alal-Muttaqiin. 

242.  Kazaalika  yubayyi-nUllaahu  lakum  ‘Aayaati-Hii  la-‘al-lakum  ta’-qiluun.  

Lesson

wasiy-yatal-li-‘azwaajihim – (they should bequeath to their wives), these are last verses of this Surah regarding affairs and matters of marriage between husband and wife. God Almighty commanded in it that the husband can produce another facility for his wife, who is being widow due to his forthcoming death, that he should bequeath his heirs for his wife a provision for a year without turning her out and she has right to get concessions.

Whether the woman is divorced or she becomes widow due to fate of God Almighty, whether the portion has been appointed or it was not cleared at the time of marriage, in each condition, Islam teaches good behavior, forgiveness, overlook and goodness. After it, the share of the women in heritance and the term were appointed. Now there is no need to act upon this verse. 

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243.  Bethink thee not (O Muhammad) of those of old, who went forth from their habitations in their thousands, fearing death, and Allah said unto them: Die; and then He brought them back to life. Lo! Allah is a Lord of kindness to mankind, but most of mankind give not thanks.  
243.  ‘Alam  tara  ‘ilallaziina  kharajuu  min  diyaarihim  wa  hum  ‘uluufun  hazaralmawt.  Fa-qaala  lahumUllaahu  muu-tuu: summa  ‘ah-yaahum.  ‘In-nAllaaha  la-Zuu-Fazlin  ‘alan-naasi  wa  laakinna  ‘aksaran-naasi  laa yash-kuruun.   

Lesson

‘Alam  tara – (have you not seen? Did you not bethink?), this method of addressing is chosen in Arabic language at those times when attention is drawn towards any known and much big happening. Here it does not mean to see only with eyes, but purpose is to think, meditate and consider with deep thought, and whenever the word ‘ilaa comes with it, then it aims also to teach any lesson from this particular event.
 
‘allaziina  kharajuu – who went forth (from their habitations), it signifies towards the children of Israel, who had left their homes due to fear of death, and the natives of Arab did know very well this important happening.

This verse indicates toward a very ancient event, that the children of Israel, who were in thousands, had left their native country due to fear of death (cause of which was either they considered plague or attack of enemy). Neither they believed in fate, nor stood up against the enemy with weapons. Moreover, they went forth with cowardice to save their own lives only. But their running away in this manner did not become useful for them, and they could not be saved from the claws of death.
 
After seven days, one of the Prophets of God Almighty (peace be upon him) prayed for them, and then Allah Almighty brought them back to life, so that they forswear for future and may know that the relation of death and life is in the hands of Some Other Life. Allah Almighty blesses the mankind. The people cannot count His favors. They should be very grateful to God Almighty every moment.    


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif)


Sunday, February 28, 2016

How to guard the Prayers

How to guard the Prayers

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)
Stage – 1, Verses – 238 & 239 of 286, Section – 31 of 40 (Part - 2)

BisMIllaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

238.  Be guardians of your prayers, and of the midmost prayer, and stand up with devotion to Allah.

239.  And if ye go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback. And when ye are again in safety, remember Allah, as He hath taught you that which (heretofore) ye knew not.      
238.  Haafizuu  ‘alas-Salawaati  was-Salaatil-wustaa;  wa  quu-muu  LIllaahi  qaanitiin.

239.  Fa-‘in  khiftum  fa-rijaalan  ‘aw  rukbaanaa.  Fa- ‘izaaa  ‘amin-tum  fazkurUllaaha  kamaa  ‘alla-makum-maa  lam takuu-nuu  ta’-lamuun.

Lesson

Haafizuu  ‘alas-Salawaati – (Be guardians of your prayers), that is to say; regularize your prayers in time. The scholars have categorized three stages of punctuality for prayer:

First stage – the prayers should be offered in time, without leaving Divine precepts and even obligations (Faraa-‘iz and Waajibaat).

Second Stage – the body of the individual, who is going to offer prayer, should be clean and pure. Humility and spiritless should be in his heart. He should care also for the practices (sunnahs) of the Prophet Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace of Allah Almighty be upon him) and mustahibbaat (good works).

Most Superior Stage – while offering the prayer, he should deem that he is looking Allah Almighty and he would have this perception also that God Almighty is looking the devout too.   

‘As-Salaatil-wustaa – (the midmost prayer), the aim from this central middle prayer is the ‘Asr Prayer, which is offered between the afternoon (Zuhar) prayer and after sunset (Magrib) prayer. Some scholars consider it as the prayer before sunrise (Fajar prayer). 

qaanitiin – (to stand up) with devotion, this word has been derived from qanuut which means devotion, supplication, prayer, humility, begging, submission and obedience to Allah Almighty.

The rights and the duties regarding wives were being described in the previous verses, and the same discussion will run again in the succeeding verses. Some commands about the prayer have come in the middle. It appears from this discussion that the matters regarding society and its affairs, rules and morality are not separate from the worship. The rights of God Almighty and the rights of His servants (human beings) are going side by side in the Divine Law.

Between the commands regarding divorce, it can also be the reason of mentioning the order about the prayer that the mankind should not forget the worship of his Creator (Allah Almighty), while he is busy in the worldly matters and mutual disputes.  

It has been emphasized strongly about the midmost prayer (‘Asr), because the mankind remains more earnestly diligent in the worldly works at this time (after the afternoon). So attention is drawn to this side that “Do not forget God Almighty while you are engaged in the worldly matters. Moreover, continue His remembrance and worship also”. Here some commands regarding prayers during peace and war have also been explained. If there is a time of battle and fear of enemy then you should offer prayers with reduction only while either you are foot soldiers or have any conveyance (riding horse etc.)

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif)


Saturday, February 27, 2016

Appointed portion and divorce

Appointed portion and divorce

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)
Stage – 1, Verses – 236 & 237 of 286, Section – 31 of 40 (Part - 2)

BisMIllaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
  
236.  It is no sin for you if ye divorce women while yet ye have not touched them, nor appointed unto them a portion. Provide for them, the rich according to his means, and the straitened according to his means, a fair provision. (This is) a bounden duty for those who do good.
236.  Laa  junaaha  ‘alaykum  ‘in  tallaqtumun-nisaaa-‘a  maa  lam  tamassuu-hunna  ‘aw  taf-rizuu  lahunna  fariizah.  Wa  matti-‘uu- hunn.  ‘Alalmuusi-‘i  qadaruhuu  wa    ‘alalmuqtiri  qadaruh.  Mataa-‘am-bil-ma’-ruuf.  Haq-qan  ‘alal-Muhsiniin. 

Lesson

maa  lam  tamassuu-hunna – (the women to whom) you have not yet touched, it aims ‘not yet having sex’ and ‘not yet performed the act of intercourse’ with the women.

matti-‘uu- hunn – (Provide for them), this word has been derived from mataaa’, that is to say; provide them expenditure and necessities of life. The religious scholars refer it particularly toward dress etc.

It has been commanded in this verse that if the portion (maher) was not appointed at the time of marriage and married without specification, then the portion (maher) will be set after that. However, if the wife has been divorced before touching (before having Sexual intercourse with her) then the portion will not be necessary. But it is compulsory for the husband that he should give something to the woman.
 
After the divorce, whatever is to be provided to the woman, that will be set according to the means of the husband. If the husband is rich, then he should give her a reasonable amount, and if he is distressed then whatever is in his power, he should pay his divorced wife. It has been urged also by increasing the word bil-ma’-ruuf that they should not be narrowed or troubled by their husbands in paying the provision. Moreover, it should be according to the traditions. Ease of the husband and necessities of the wife should be kept in mind while providing the provision.

In the last, it is told that ‘this is a bounden duty for Muhsiniin’ (those who do good), that every Muslim should behave well with every individual. But in the matter of a woman they should set these things more gracefully. 

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237.  If ye divorce them before ye have touched them and ye have appointed unto them a portion, then (pay the) half of that which ye appointed, unless they (the women) agree to forgo it, or he agreeth to forgo it in whose hand is the marriage tie. To forgo is nearer to piety. And forget not kindness among yourselves. Surely Allah is Seer of what ye do.                                 
237.  Wa  ‘in- tallaqtumuu-hunna  min- qabli  ‘an-tamassuu-hunna  wa  qad  faraztum  lahunna  farii-zatan- fa-nisfu  maa  faraz-tum  ‘illaaa  ‘any-ya’- fuuna  ‘aw  ya’-fu-wallazii  bi-yadihii  ‘uqdatun-Nikaah.  Wa  ‘an-ta’-fuuu  ‘aqrabu  litaq-waa.  Wa  laa  tansawul-fazla  baynakum.  ‘Innallaaha  bimaa ta’-maluuna  Basiir. 

Lesson

Some more orders regarding the divorced woman and payment of her appointed portion have been mentioned in this verse. If the portion (maher) was appointed at the time of marriage tie, and the time of divorce comes before touching the wife, then half of the appointed portion will be paid compulsorily. But the woman herself or the person; in whose hand is the marriage tie, if they excuse entire portion or some part of it, then it is another thing.

After that, it has been described also that if the husband overlooks then it is more reasonable close to piety, because God Almighty bestowed him greatness and authorized him for keeping the marriage tie or to divorce her wife. If the husband doesn’t pay even half of the portion now, and divorces without touching her, then it is not reasonable near God fearing. Any kind of failure didn’t exist from the side of his wife. As though, these became four forms of divorce and portion:
 
·         Neither the portion is appointed, nor did husband touch his wife. In this form, he should pay some reasonable sum to his wife.

·         The portion was appointed but he did not touch her. Now half of the appointed portion will be paid by him.

·         The Portion was appointed and he committed also a sexual intercourse. Then he will pay complete appointed portion.

·         The Portion was not appointed but he performed intercourse. In this case, he would have to pay the similar portion (Maher Misl).
  
Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif)



Reference: http://muntakhabahadith.com/

Friday, February 26, 2016

Widow’s incumbent term of probation is 4 months & 10 days

Widow’s incumbent term of probation is 4 months & 10 days

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)
Stage – 1, Verses – 234 & 235 of 286, Section – 30 of 40 (Part - 2)

BisMIllaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

234.  And such of you as die and leave behind them wives, they (the wives) shall wait, keeping themselves apart, four months and ten days. Then when they reach the term (prescribed for them) then there is no sin for you in aught that they may do with themselves in decency. And Allah is Aware of what ye do.
234.  Wallaziina  yutawaffawna  minkum  wa  yazaruuna  ‘azwaajany-yatarab-basna  bi-‘anfusi-hinna  ‘arba-‘ata  ‘ash-hurinw-wa  ‘ashraa.  Fa-‘izaa  balagna  ‘ajalahunna  falaa  junaaha  ‘alay-kum  fiimaa  fa-‘alna  fiii  ‘anfusihinna  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Wallaahu  bimaa  ta’-maluuna  Khabiir.     

Lesson

yatarab-basna – (they shall wait, keeping apart), it aims that after the death of husband, a widow will keep herself in waiting. Technical name of this period of waiting is ‘The Term’ (‘iddat). The woman who is divorced, her term is complete three months and the widow’s term is four months plus ten days. If the widow is pregnant, then her term is until the delivery of her child. To dress, decorate or embellish (make-up) is not lawful for the woman during the days of “the term”.

Other religions of the world did not show any proper favor for the widow. Moreover, Hinduism ordered the widow to burn alive in the fire (to be sati). Islam has granted the right to the widow to remain alive with full opportunities and determined this command that the women shall wait, keeping themselves apart, just four months and ten days with effect from the dates of their husbands’ death. She should not draw attention towards her next marriage and its related other matters. She must not decorate herself during this term. If she feels that she is pregnant, then her term will change, and she would have to prevent herself from re-marriage until delivery.
 
When the term of widowhood will end, then there is no objection in sending the message for re-marriage. Here, entire nation has been addressed, that is to say; there is no sin or objection for keeping lawful to re-marry like this matter. It has been cleared also that if any individual commits something unlawful, which is against the precepts of the religion, then it is others’ duty that they should challenge him according to their spirit and power. Otherwise, it will be sin for them too. So, they should look in to the matter that after the term of widowhood, which act will be done by the woman, that should not be against the Divine Law and custom. Remember! God Almighty is fully Aware about your deeds. Your all actions (good or bad) will be reckoned on the Day of Resurrection and you will be rewarded or punished according to your character roll.    

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235.  There is no sin for you in that which ye proclaim or hide in your minds concerning your troth with women. Allah knoweth that ye will remember them. But plight not your troth with women except by uttering a recognized form of words. And do not consummate the marriage until (the term) prescribed is run. And know that Allah knoweth what is in your minds, so beware of Him;   and know that Allah is Forgiving, Clement.
235.  Wa  laa junaaha  ‘alaykum  fiimaa  ‘arraztum-  bihii  min  khitbatin-nisaaa-‘i  ‘aw  ‘aknan-tum  fiii  ‘anfusikum.  ‘Ali-mAllaahu  ‘annakum  satazkuruuna-hunna  wa  laakillaa  tuwaa-‘iduu-hunna  sirran  ‘illaaa  ‘an-taquu-luu  qawlam—ma’-ruufaa.  Wa  laa  ta’-zimuu  ’uqdatan-Nikaahi  hattaa  Yablugal-Kitaabu  ‘ajalah.  Wa’-lamuuu  ‘annAl  laaha  ya’-lamu  maa fiii  ‘anfusi-kum fah-zaruuh..  wa’-lamuuu  ‘annAllaaha  Gafuurun  Haliim.

Lesson

It has been described in this verse that if the widow or divorced woman has been passing her period of term, then there is no vexation in it that any man establishes intention in his heart to wed her. But he should not bring it on his tongue or if he talks about it then he should use only the recognized form of words. It is unlawful to disclose one’s will to marry her clearly. A weakness of the human is being commanded here, that is to say; if the woman is liked by any individual and she has lodged in his heart, then that person surely brings her mention on his tongue. So, it is warned that it is not lawful to promise for marriage openly or secretly during her this duration of grief. Do not plight your troth before end of the prescribed term.  



Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif)


Thursday, February 25, 2016

Rules for suckling the infant

Rules for suckling the infant

Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – Chapter – 2)
Stage – 1, Verse – 233 of 286, Section – 30 of 40 (Part - 2)

BisMIllaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

233a.  Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that   is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child. No one should be compelled beyond his capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child.
233a.  Wal-waalidaatu  yurzi’-na  ‘awlaada-hunna  haw-layni  kaa-milayni  liman  ‘araada  ‘any-yutimmar-razaa-‘ah.  Wa  ‘alal-mawluudi  lahuu  rizquhunna  wa  kiswatuhunna  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Laa  tukallafu  nafsun  ‘illaa  wus-‘ahaa.  Laa  tuzaaarra  waalidatum-bi-waladihaa  wa  laa mawluudul-lahuu  bi-waladihii;   

Lesson

razaa-‘ah – (length of time for suckling), in the Divine Law of Islam, natural length of time for suckling has been fixed two complete years. More duration or less has been left upon mutual willingness among husband and wife. Detail of these orders is being discussed in this lesson.

‘al-waalidaatu – (women having child), it aims the mothers of the children, whether they are in marriage or have been divorced.

It has been narrated in this verse that the mother should suckle the child for two years and this length of time is for those mothers and fathers who wish to complete the duration of suckling. Otherwise, it is lawful also to lessen this period, as it will come at the end of the verse. Those mothers come in this instruction too, whose marriage still stands and those who either have been divorced or their term has passed. Difference will be only that the feeding and clothing of the wife is incumbent on the husband in each condition.

It has been known from this verse that length of time for the mother who will suckle the child or the father who has to pay the charges of suckling to the mother of his child is complete two years. Then it has been disclosed also that the father will have to provide feeding and clothing to the mother of the child in each condition. In the first form, she is in his marriage and in the second, he has to pay remuneration of suckling the child, and the parents of the child should not anyhow vex each other, for example; either the mother should not refuse from suckling the child without any reason or the father should not get suckled his child separating him from his mother without any reason or he should not be narrow in paying her feeding and clothing.

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233b.  And on the (father’s) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, it is no sin for them; and if ye wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provided that ye pay what is due from you in kindness. And observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what ye do.
233b.  Wa  ‘alal-waarisi  mislu  zaalik.  Fa-‘in  ‘araadaa  fisaalan  ‘an  taraazim-min-humaa  wa  tashaa-wurin-  falaa junaaha ‘alayhi-maa.  Wa  ‘in  ‘arattum  ‘an- tas-tar-zi-‘uuu  ‘awlaadakum  falaa  junaaha  ‘alaykum  ‘izaa  sallamtum-maaa  ‘aataytum-  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Watta-qUllaaha  wa’-lamuuu  ‘annAllaaha  bimaa  ta’-maluuna  Basiir.  

Lesson

‘al-waarisi – (heir), heir means that intimate relative who is lawful heir after the father. 

mislu  zaalik – (incumbent) the like of that, it means that as incumbent (protection of rights) regarding the child’s mother is on the father, like this the incumbent is also on the nearest relative after the father.

It is father’s responsibility to bear the expenses for bringing up his child and when he dies, then it is the order that if the child is owner of wealth/property, then his expenditures will be taken from that wealth, and if he doesn’t have any wealth/property, then those persons who are out of his intimate rich relatives, and besides being intimate relatives they are also lawful heirs, then it is their duty to bear the child’s expenditures. Reason for assuming the charges of an innocent suckling child on others, is that the child has not virtue to bring him up himself. Another thing also appears from it that expenses for the lives of poor women, cripple men and minors are incumbent on their relatives.

After that it has also been instructed that if the parents want to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, then it is no sin for them. The mother has more right to bring the child up due to her kindness feelings. So the matters relating to the child have not been left on the opinion of only father. Then it has been cleared too that in some circumstances; when it has become necessary to get suckled the child from any other woman, then it is no sin also, provided that she has been paid remuneration.    

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’aan published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif)