Quran Chptr 4-12b (Pt-4 Stg-1) (L–517)-درس قرآن
Portion of a distant heir
Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (Women -4),
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
12b. And if a man or a woman have a distant heir (having left neither parent nor child), and he (or she) have a brother or a sister (only on the mother’s side) then to each of them twain (the brother and the sister) the sixth.
12b. Wa ‘in- kaana rajuluny-yuu-rasu kalaalatan ‘a-wimra- ‘atunw-wa lahuuu ‘akhun ‘aw ‘ukhtun- fali-kulli waahidim-min-humas-sudus.
Kalaalah – (the person, who does not have his father or son), all theologians of Islam admit this explanation, but Imam Abu Hanifah says that the grandmother and granddaughter should also be not in addition to the father and the son (that person should not have father, son, grandmother and granddaughter). In this connection, which order is for the father and the son that is for the grandmother and the granddaughter too. However, difference of opinion in this respect, is from the very first between the theologians.
Now there is description about hereditary of such brothers and sisters, who become heirs only from the mother-side. It is the Rule that while father and son are present, then brother and sister will get nothing. If the father and the son are not living, then brother and sister will get portion of hereditary. There are three types of brothers and sisters:
1. Own – those brothers and sisters, who have same father and mother. They are called ‘ainii.
2. Step-brothers and sisters, who are brothers and sisters due to father only, are called ‘alaatii.
3. Brothers or sisters by the same mother but by a different father are called ‘akhyaafii.
Recitation in this verse is about the last type of brothers and sisters.
If the deceased person does not have any close from the father, the mother, the son or the daughter, but he/she have one ‘akhyaafii brother or ‘akhyaafii sister, then each of both will get sixth of that which they left. Share from hereditary for akhyaafii brother and ‘akhyaafii sister is equal, nobody will be given more or less.
As far as it concerns about other two types of brothers and sisters, that is to say; ‘ainii and ’alaatii, order for these both types is just like own children; on the condition that the deceased person does not have father or son.
‘Ainii brother or sister gets first priority. If they are not alive then ’alaatii brothers and sisters will get their turn. Portion of these two kinds of persons will be described in detail at the end of this Surah.
In this connection, remaining laws about distribution of the hereditary will be explained after it also.