An Introductory Note on Second Chapter
The first Surah ‘’Al-Faatihah’ (The Opening) was revealed in Makkah, whereas this, the second Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (The Cow) revealed in Madinah. This Surah is the longest Chapter of Holy Qur’aan. It has 286 verses in 40 sections. Because there is an event of ‘The Cow’ in it, so it has been named, ‘Al-Baqarah. The matters relating to religious as well as social affairs have been taught in it. It is said that the Companion Umar (Radi ALLAAHU ‘Anhu) spent many years to understand this Surah. It does not mean “learning by heart”, but to learn and understand the Commands and Instructions mentioned in it. Abstract of its subjects is being stated below:
1. Holy Qur’aan is Guidance for those people who fear from ALLAH and they have root of abstinence in their hearts.
2 After listening to Holy Qur’aan, three kinds of people will grow as it has been happening in the world at every time of beginning a new series of movements. At first, the Believers, who will have full faith in it. Secondly, the infidels who will oppose it and thirdly, the hypocrites, who will show themselves as believers but actually their hearts will refuse it.
3 After all of the above, the people have been ordered to worship ALLAH only and the Truth of Holy Qur’aan has been proven.
4 In the fourth section, the Birth of The Prophet Adam (peace be upon Him) has been mentioned including His entitlement of being Caliph on the earth. Then, from fifth section to onward, recitation of a big dynasty’s life “Israelite” begins. Hundreds of Prophets and Messengers (peace be upon Them) were born in this dynasty. ALLAH ALMIGHTY narrated the condition of this dynasty “in a lesson taken method” and also told about their false movements and badness due to which these people could not be able to remain Viceroy of The CREATOR on earth.
5 From section 5 to 15, many events of Israelite have been stated; for example, their promises and agreements, splendor of ALLAH on the Mount Sinai, event of the Day of Saturday, event of The Cow, circumstances of the murder of Prophets (peace be upon Them), impure attempts of enchantment/charm and magic, unfair conduct of disgracing the Prophets (peace be upon Them), wrong faith in the rewards and deliverance on the Day of Judgment.
6 From section-16 onward, including more events of Israelite, birth of The Last Prophet and Messenger Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) in Arab from the generation of Adam (peace be upon Him) has been mentioned. And there is also recitation on The Temple of Makkah (Masjid ul Haraam).The degrees of the Martyrs in the ways of ALLAH are mentioned here.
7 In section-20, matters of The Forbidden and Lawful, and Tokens of the Power of GOD have been discussed.
In the same section, we have been informed by Allah Almighty about actual Goodness. After this section, up to section 26, the matters relating inheritance, revenge, blessing, fast, pilgrimage to Makkah, Jehad (to try and strive), sacrifice pertaining to property in the path of GOD have been described including orders and instructions for them.
From section 27, the affairs regarding family and social life have begun like; marriage, divorce, menstruation, second marriage, bringing up and looking after the children and favor right of the bride etc.
In section 32, again the matter of Jehad has been discussed like; Saul’s (peace be upon Him) encounter against the Goliath. GOD commanded us that victory or defeat does not depend; either on war equipment or decrease and increase of the personnel. Usually small number of manpower wins against large Armies.
‘Aayat ul Kursii, in which many virtues of GOD like; the LIVING, the ETERNAL etc. have been mentioned in section -34. There is no compulsion for anyone to accept Islam because its excellence, Tokens and proofs are clear.
Recitation regarding Lesson taken events of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon Him) has been discussed here. Up to section-39, commands about Alms and charity, prohibition to get interest, laws and instructions regarding witness and principles of trade have been mentioned.
At the end of this Surah in section-40, summary of Faith and Islam have been described including a perfect prayer. Last words of this blessing are, “Fan-sur-naa-alal-Qaomil-kaaferiin” (So give us victory over the disbelieving folk). It is the result of invitation by Holy Qur’aan that, the Law of GOD will overcome on atheism with that nation, which will bring up with the teachings of Holy Qur’aan. Consequence of the believers of GOD ALMIGHTY and infidels has been narrated here that believers will succeed, whereas the infidels will fail and subdued, as the end of the Surah is just like its beginning.
Please don’t forget it that writing of this abstract means only to show you a concept of its subjects. It is fact that, it is impossible for anyone, to summarize the facts and excellence of the Speech of GOD in a few words.
Now we should think and care for the Commands and Instructions of GOD, mentioned in this Surah. We should understand its philosophy and be ready to act upon these instructions. O GOD! Give us knowledge and power for it. .